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  • What is Mental Health?
    Mental health is a state of mental well-being that enables people to cope with the stresses of life, realize their abilities, learn well and work well, and contribute to their community.
  • Why taking care of mental health is important?
    Caring for our mental health is an essential part of our health and wellbeing. Impaired mental health affects; Your relationship with others Your ability to concentrate Your ability to communicate Can lead to involvement in drugs or alcohol
  • What causes mental health problems?
    Biological factors such as emotional skills, substance use and genetics can make people more vulnerable to mental health problems. Exposure to unfavorable social, economic and environmental circumstances – including poverty, violence, inequality and environmental deprivation – also increases people’s risk of experiencing mental health conditions.
  • What Psychological Factors Contribute to Mental Illness?
    Psychological factors that may contribute to mental illness include specific vulnerabilities such as personality traits, particular extremes in temperament features, specific sensitivities to negative emotions, cognitive susceptibility, dysfunctional attitudes, hopelessness, negative distortions.
  • How do I know if I’m mentally unwell?
    If your beliefs, thoughts, feelings or behavior have a significant impact on your ability to function in any form (social, personal, functional, occupational), it would be important to seek help.
  • What do I do if I’m worried about my mental health?
    The most important thing is to talk to someone you trust. This might be a friend, colleague, family member, or mental health professional. In addition to talking to someone, it may be useful to find out more information about what you are experiencing. These things may help to get some perspective on what you are experiencing, and be the start of getting help.
  • How do I talk about my mental health difficulties?
    It’s so important to start the conversation. Reach out to someone you trust, feel safe and comfortable with. This could be a partner, friend, family member, colleague, or mental health professional. Taking a moment to talk is a big step towards supporting your mental health.
  • How common are mental illnesses?
    According to the evidence available, in India, about 190–200/1000 populations have a psychiatric or mental disorder, this account for about 20% of the whole population.
  • What are some of the warning signs of mental illness?
    Some symptoms that may suggest a mental illness include: Impaired concentration persistent sadness of mood or pervasive mood changes in levels of energy Excessive fear, worry, or anxiety Social withdrawal Dramatic changes in eating or sleeping habits anger/low frustration tolerance Delusions or hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that are not really there) Increasing inability to cope with daily problems and activities Suicidal thoughts Abuse of drugs and/or alcohol
  • What is the difference between a psychiatrist and a psychologist?
    While both psychiatrists and psychologists are mental health professionals, the big difference is that psychiatrists are medical physicians while psychologists are not. Because they are licensed physicians, psychiatrists can prescribe drugs. Psychologists are not allowed to do that. Psychologists on the other hand, use psychotherapy as a treatment method.
  • If a medication is prescribed to me and I begin to feel better after taking it, is it okay to stop taking it?
    It is common for people to stop taking their medication when they feel their symptoms have become controlled. Others may choose to stop their medication because of side effects. it is advisable to discuss it with your psychiatrist how and when to stop medications even if you feel better after taking it.
  • What treatment options are available for mental illnesses?
    Treatment options include psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, a combination of both as well . Treatments can be administered in inpatient and outpatient settings.
  • Is psychotherapy a substitute for medication?
    Psychotherapy in some cases can be sufficient for the treatment of certain mental conditions. However, it may be needed in conjunction with medication. This is why in several cases, it is not considered as a substitute for medication.
  • Is addiction a mental health disorder?
    Yes, addiction is recognized as a mental health disorder. It is often co-occurring with conditions like depression, anxiety, or PTSD or bipolar disorder.
  • What is CBT?
    It is cognitive behavioral therapy, is a kind of a talk therapy which is useful in various mental health conditions. This therapy focuses on how your thoughts, beliefs and attitudes affect your feelings and actions.
  • What is the idea behind CBT?
    The idea is how we think about situation can affect the way we feel and behave. If we interpret the situation negatively, we will experience negative emotions. So, it has 2 components, cognitive component- examines the things you think and behavioral component- examine the things you do.
  • Where is CBT helpful?
    It is helpful in many conditions like in anxiety disorder, depression, OCD, eating disorders, phobias, PTSD, stress and in substance use disorder.
  • What you do in CBT session?
    In CBT session you sit with your therapist (psychologist or psychiatrist) in order to identify and challenge the negative thoughts pattern and behavior. You focus on what current situation you are going through and working out with various exercises on it. This way it will be helping out in building coping strategies and resilience.
  • How many sessions of CBT a person needs?
    The number of sessions is totally individualistic and personalized. On an average, it may go between 5-20 and may be beyond it, depending upon the illness severity and chronicity.
  • How often are the CBT sessions taken?
    Sessions are done on weekly basis initially and after a while it can be shifted to fortnightly basis.
  • What is Grief/Bereavement?
    It is the experience of losing someone important to us, whether parent, partner, family member, friend or even a pet. It affects everyone in different ways and there is no right or wrong way to feel.
  • Is bereavement happening only when we lose someone?
    No, there could be many other types of losses as well: End of relationship; losing a job, Moving away to new location, Decline in Physical/Mental health of someone we care about.
  • What are the different types of Grief/ Bereavement?
    Anticipatory grief: it is a sense of loss that we feel when we are expecting a death. It doesn’t replace, reduce or make grief after the loss any easier or shorter. But, for some people it provides the opportunity to prepare for the loss. Secondary loss: after any loss you may also feel this loss. For e.g., after the initial shock of losing a loved one, you may remember the person in a way that they will not be there to share, to see, growing your children up or attending key life events like marriage. Collective grief: it can happen when a community experience a significant loss together. It could be after the death of a significant public figure or tragedy affecting the entire community like an earthquake.
  • What are the different stages of grief cycle?
    Denial- feelings of shock, disbelief, pain or confusion. Anger- blaming yourself, blaming others, hostility in commonly seen. Depression- feeling tired, helplessness, hopelessness, sad. Bargaining- it is associated with feelings of guilt, for e.g., “if only I had done more”. Acceptance- it doesn’t mean that somebody like the situations or that it is right or fair, but rather it involved acknowledging the implications of the loss and new circumstances and making oneself prepared to move on.
  • What can be done if you or your near and dear one is grieving the loss?
    Allow yourself to heal- it is understandable that mourning process can trigger intense emotion, but ignoring them won’t help in going it away faster, rather it will prolong the process. Acknowledge it. “The only cure for grief is to grieve”. Prepare yourself for painful reminders- the reminders in the from of photo, a place, or music can trigger emotions or anxiety, so prepare yourself for these. Moving on doesn’t mean forgetting them. It is important to understand that pain of losing someone gradually becomes easier to bear and the memories and love you had for the person will remain. So don’t feel guilty on finding a way to move on. Lean on friends and family. Focus on those who are good listeners. If you are religious, attending religious services, reading spiritual texts, praying can also helps in bringing comfort Take care of yourself, eat well, take adequate sleep, try some relaxation techniques, avoid using substances, spend some time in nature
  • What is the difference between obsessions and compulsions?
    Obsessions are recurrent, persistent, intrusive or inappropriate thoughts, images, or impulses. Patients often describe them as being different from normal thoughts. Obsessions involve significant anxiety or distress. Whereas, Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that are performed in an effort to control anxiety or distress related to obsessions. For example, a person has got thought of contamination due to which he/she will start having anxiety on which he/she will act out in the form of repetitive hand washing which is a form of compulsive act. This vicious cycle consumes majority of the time of the patient hindering him/her in all spheres of his/her life.
  • What’s the difference between OCD and OCPD?
    OCD and OCPD are two different conditions but you could have both. OCD is a mental health condition that involves obsessions and compulsions. OCPD, on the other hand is a type of personality disorder where you can have an intense desire for control, perfection, and order that also greatly affects your relationships with others. You might not even be aware of its effect on your relationships, even when other people notice.
  • How common are obsessions and compulsions?
    According to the World Health Organization, OCD is the sixth most disabling psychiatric disorder. A epidemiologic study from India found lifetime prevalence of 0.6 %.(Janardhan Reddy YC,,2010).it is almost equally prevalent in males and females however, Males have significant earlier age of onset than females. (Khanna S,, 1993).
  • Do Obsessions Always Come with Compulsions?
    Obsessions and compulsions can occur independently of one another, but they usually occur together, and they are usually related. Most people with OCD have both obsessions and compulsions but it is estimated that as many as 20 percent have obsessions only and 10 percent have compulsions only.
  • Do people with OCD really believe those irrational thoughts?
    Most people with OCD are well aware that their obsessions and compulsions are irrational and illogical and they are ego-dystonic thoughts, but they aren’t able to resist which leads to marked anxiety. This can also lead to sometimes high degree of shame, embarrassment, and isolation.
  • What causes OCD?
    Genetics, brain abnormalities, and the environmental influences are thought to play a role. It often starts in the teens or early adulthood. Other anxiety problems, depression, eating disorders, or substance use disorder may happen with OCD. Stressful life events can trigger or worsen the OCD symptoms in patients.
  • What are the risk factors for OCD?
    The causes of OCD are unknown, but risk factors include: · Genetics · Brain Structure · Brain Functioning · Environment
  • Is OCD inherited?
    Research shows that OCD does run in families and that genes likely play a role in the development of the disorder. . People with an immediate relative (parent or sibling) with OCD are two to five times more likely to experience OCD than someone without a close relative with OCD.
  • How is OCD diagnosed?
    There is no laboratory or brain imaging tests to diagnose OCD. The diagnosis is made based on the observation and assessment of the person’s symptoms by a mental health professional.
  • Is OCD treatable? Can I get better?
    Obsessive-compulsive disorder treatment may not result in a cure, but it can help bring symptoms under control so that they don't rule your daily life. Depending on the severity of OCD, some people may need long-term, ongoing or more intensive treatment. Both psychotherapy and medication, when properly used, can substantially improve OCD symptoms in a majority of patients – up to 60-70%.
  • Some tips and tricks for helping oneself if I have OCD?
    · Always expect the unexpected: You can have an obsessive thought at any time or any place. Don’t be surprised when old or even new ones occur. · Never seek reassurance from yourself or others: Reassurance-seeking is a compulsion, no matter how you may try to justify it. · Always try hard to agree with all obsessive thoughts: Never analyze, question, or argue with them. · Don’t waste time trying to prevent or not think your thoughts: This will only have the opposite effect and lead to thinking more thoughts. · Remember that dealing with your symptoms is your responsibility alone: Don’t involve others in your therapy homework (unless your therapist tells you to) or expect them to push you or motivate you. · Remember that in OCD, the problem is not the anxiety — the problem is the compulsions: If you think the anxiety is the problem, you will only do more compulsions to get rid of it (which will only create more anxiety). If you recognize that the compulsions are the problem, stop doing them, and stay with the fearful situation, then the anxiety will eventually go away as you build up tolerance.
  • What is mindfulness?
    Mindfulness is the practice of bringing one's attention to the present moment, cultivating awareness without judgment. It involves paying attention to thoughts, feelings, and sensations with a sense of openness and acceptance.
  • What are the benefits of practicing mindfulness?
    Mindfulness has numerous mental health benefits, including stress reduction, improved focus, enhanced emotional regulation, increased self-awareness, and a greater sense of overall well-being.
  • How is mindfulness different from meditation?
    Mindfulness is a type of meditation. Meditation is a broader term that encompasses various practices, including mindfulness meditation. Mindfulness meditation specifically focuses on cultivating present-moment awareness.
  • Can anyone practice mindfulness?
    Yes, mindfulness is accessible to anyone. It can be practiced by people of all ages and backgrounds. There are various techniques, making it adaptable to individual preferences and needs.
  • How do I start practicing mindfulness?
    Begin by incorporating simple mindfulness exercises into your daily routine, such as focused breathing, body scan, or mindful walking. Many apps and online resources offer guided mindfulness sessions for beginners.
  • How often and how long should I practice mindfulness?
    Consistency is key. Start with shorter sessions, around 5-10 minutes, and gradually increase as you become more comfortable. Aim for daily practice to experience the full benefits.
  • Can mindfulness help with anxiety and depression?
    Yes, mindfulness has been shown to be effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety and depression. It helps individuals develop a more balanced relationship with their thoughts and emotions.
  • Is mindfulness a religious practice?
    -While mindfulness has roots in Buddhism, it is a secular practice that can be applied by people of any religious or non-religious background. It is often taught in a way that is inclusive and adaptable to various belief systems.
  • What is mindful eating, and how does it work?
    Mindful eating involves paying full attention to the experience of eating, savoring each bite, and being aware of the taste, texture, and smell of food. It promotes a healthier relationship with food and can contribute to improved digestion.
  • Can mindfulness be used as a complement to therapy?
    Yes, many mental health professionals incorporate mindfulness-based approaches into therapy. Mindfulness can complement traditional therapeutic interventions by providing individuals with tools to manage stress, regulate emotions, and enhance self-awareness.
  • Is mindfulness suitable for children?
    Yes, mindfulness can be beneficial for children. There are age-appropriate mindfulness activities that can help children develop focus, emotional regulation, and resilience.
  • 1. What is a personality disorder?
    A personality disorder is a mental health condition characterized by enduring patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving that deviate significantly from cultural expectations, leading to distress or impairment in various areas of life.
  • 2. How common are personality disorders?
    Personality disorders are relatively common, affecting about 9-13% of the global population. They can occur in both men and women and typically emerge in adolescence or early adulthood.
  • 3. What causes personality disorders?
    The exact cause of personality disorders is not fully understood, but a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurobiological factors is believed to contribute to their development.
  • 4. What are the different types of personality disorders?
    Cluster A : Personality disorders are categorized into three clusters:(odd or eccentric behavior), Cluster B : (dramatic, emotional, or erratic behavior), Cluster C : (anxious or fearful behavior). Examples include borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.
  • 5. How are personality disorders diagnosed?
    Diagnosis is typically made by mental health professionals through a thorough assessment, including interviews, observation, and psychological testing.
  • 6. Can personality disorders be treated?
    Yes, personality disorders can be treated. Psychotherapy, particularly dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and medications may be used to manage symptoms and improve functioning.
  • 7. Is medication necessary for treating personality disorders?
    While medication may be prescribed to manage specific symptoms,it is typically used in conjunction with therapy for optimal outcomes.Psychotherapy is often the primary treatment for personality disorders.
  • 8. Can people with personality disorders have healthy relationships?
    With appropriate treatment and support, individuals with personality disorders can develop healthier relationships. Therapy can help them learn coping skills, improve communication, and foster emotional regulation.
  • 9. Do personality disorders go away on their own?
    Personality disorders are chronic conditions, but with treatment, individuals can learn to manage symptoms and lead more fulfilling lives. Early intervention and consistent therapy can contribute to better long-term outcomes.
  • 10. How can friends and family support someone with a personality disorder?
    Education, understanding, and empathy are crucial. Encouraging the individual to seek professional help, participating in therapy together, and maintaining open communication can be beneficial. Patience and support are key components of assisting someone with a personality disorder.
  • What is a phobia?
    - A phobia is an intense and irrational fear of a specific object, situation, or activity.
  • What are common types of phobias?
    - Common phobias include fear of heights (acrophobia), spiders (arachnophobia), closed places (claustrophobia), open spaces (agoraphobia) , water (hydrophobia) and public speaking (gloss phobia), among others.
  • How can I tell if I have a phobia?
    - Phobias often lead to extreme anxiety or panic attacks when confronted with the feared object or situation. If this is disrupting your life, it's essential to seek help.
  • What causes phobias?
    - Phobias can develop due to genetics, past traumatic experiences, or learned behaviors. There's no single cause for all phobias.
  • How can phobias be treated?
    - Treatment options include therapy (e.g., exposure therapy or cognitive-behavioral therapy) and medication intervention, often involving anti-anxiety medications or antidepressants.
  • What is medicine intervention for phobias?
    - Medicine intervention for phobias involves the use of medications to manage anxiety symptoms associated with the phobia. This can provide short-term relief.
  • What medications are commonly prescribed for phobias?
    - Medications like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), benzodiazepines, and beta-blockers are often prescribed to alleviate anxiety symptoms in phobia cases.
  • Are medications a long-term solution for phobias?
    - Medications are usually a short-term solution to help manage acute symptoms. Long-term management often involves therapy to address the root causes of the phobia.
  • Can children develop phobias?
    Yes, children can develop phobias. It's essential to address these fears early to prevent them from persisting into adulthood.
  • Can phobias be completely cured, or is management the goal?
    While complete eradication of a phobia is possible for some, the goal for many is effective management, allowing them to live a fulfilling life despite their fear.
  • What is schizophrenia?
    Schizophrenia is severe, chronic, behavioral disorder where a person shows psychotic symptoms in the form of hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking/behavior, paranoia, violent outbursts. There may also be disruption in one’s daily chores (personal hygiene, appetite) and often associated with sleep disturbances. This illness is diagnosed only when symptoms have been present for at least persistently for 6 months.
  • What are the earlier signs that can be identified for the illness?
    Early signs are often reported as prodrome which may include problems like emotional changes, disturbed sleep, academic decline, social isolation, lack of drive, decline in function at work. Typical age of onset of schizophrenia is 15-25 years and late onset is between 45-55 years of age.
  • What are the risk factors for schizophrenia?
    Genetics- it runs in families. Environmental factors like any stressful life event or experiences may trigger the onset of schizophrenia in people who are genetically predisposed to it. Brain structure and functioning- research shows the changes in the brain structure of patients having schizophrenic symptoms. Heavy use of cannabis is also linked to the onset of schizophrenia.
  • What are the first rank symptoms of schizophrenia and how they are important to know?
    Subjective thought disorder phenomena like thought broadcasting, insertion, passivity experiences (replacement of will) and particular type of auditory hallucinations ( 3rd person or commanding type) are attributed towards first rank ‘ Schneiderian ‘ symptoms. It has been reported that patient with one or more first rank symptoms have 3 times increased risk of recurrence of such symptoms in subsequent episodes as compared to patients having no first rank symptoms.
  • What are the treatment options for schizophrenia?
    Schizophrenia is a chronic disorder and needs long term treatment. This illness is not curable but treatable with the help of antipsychotic medications, strong social and community support. It has been seen that 70% of them respond to the treatment and become stable to the treatment and live normal life but may need medicines for longer period (may be up to 5 years). 15% of them may show cure and may or may not have mild residual abnormality which might not interfere with their living. Rest 15% shows severe chronic states and may need recurrent hospitalizations.
  • Why early treatment of schizophrenia is better?
    Schizophrenia is a treatable condition and research reported that earlier the treatment faster is the recovery. Also, early treatment helps in preventing the symptoms becoming severe.
  • Does counselling helps in treatment of schizophrenia?
    Schizophrenia is a severe psychotic disorder in which symptoms are treated/controlled with the help of medications. Once the patient becomes stable, counselling can help the patient to learns more about his/her illness. It helps in motivating the patient for compliance with medications. There is no substitution for medications in case of schizophrenia treatment.
  • What is the risk prevalence of schizophrenia?
    The risk of schizophrenia is 1%( 1 in 100) in general population. If one patient/sibling is having schizophrenia, risk increase by 10%. If both parents have been diagnosed, risk increases to 50%.
  • My child is having schizophrenia, will getting him/her married be able to cure it?
    This is a common misconception, in India that marriages cure mental illnesses. Rather curing, it might trigger the symptoms because of the stress and responsibility associated with beginning of a new relationship. Proper treatment planning is must before marriage. Disclosing about illness is also recommended for the proper care of patient in future.
  • What happens if schizophrenia is treated early?
    Less chances of hospitalizations. Less likely to need intensive care at home. More likely to be able to work and live independently.
  • What is the difference between anxiety and depression?
    Depression is a Mood Disorder. It is associated with sad and/or irritable mood, lack of enjoyment of previously pleasant activities and feelings of hopelessness. Whereas, Anxiety is associated with specific fears, nervousness, worry or dread.
  • Can people have both anxiety and depression at the same time?
    Yes! People can have both at the same time. Anxiety disorders tend to appear earlier than depression.
  • When should I seek treatment for my family member?
    We recommend seeking help if these feelings happen often and start interfering with your daily functioning. They are unable to do things they normally do.
  • What are some of the symptoms of depression?
    Symptoms: Depressed mood most of the day Changes in sleeping patterns Loss of energy or increased fatigue Inappropriate guilt
  • What Age Group is likely to get affected by Depression and Anxiety easily?
    Younger adults (16–29 years) were more likely to be affected by depression and severe anxiety than the older adults.
  • How Do I know I have an anxiety disorder?
    Anxiety is a normal part of living. It’s a biological reaction—the body’s way of telling us something isn’t right. But if your anxiety becomes overwhelming and persistent, or if it interferes with your regular daily activities, then u need to Consult.
  • What treatment options are available?
    Treatments for anxiety disorders may include medication or therapy; both types have been found effective. A combination of medication and therapy may also be effective.
  • What if I have side effects from my medication?
    Contact your physician if you experience side effects, even if you are not sure a symptom is caused by a medication. Do not stop taking a medication without consulting with the prescribing physician; abrupt discontinuation may cause other health risks.
  • What are the risk factors/triggers for anxiety disorders?
    Anxiety disorders can be the result of a number of factors, including genetics (children of adults with an anxiety disorder have a higher risk of developing one), psychological and experiences (e.g. an embarrassing moment or a traumatic event).
  • What do I need to tell my doctor on visiting a mental health clinic?
    Write down symptoms you’ve had Make a list of all medications you are taking Write down questions to ask your doctor Take a family member or friend along
  • Is depression a mental illness?
    Yes, clinical depression is a serious, but treatable, mental illness. It is a medical condition, not a personal weakness.
  • What are the Triggers of Depression?
    Family history of depression. An abnormal reaction over the loss of a loved one through death, divorce, or separation. Interpersonal disputes. Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Major life events such as moving, graduating or retiring, etc.
  • Will someone who has had depression get it again?
    Having experienced an episode of major depression does put a person at greater risk for future episodes, but not everyone who has recovered from depression will experience it again.
  • How can therapy and medication help with depression? What has research found about these treatment methods for depression? Are they effective?
    More than 80% of people treated with medications will improve and some will have total resolution of symptoms. Therapy is also very effective and has the added benefit of helping you develop better coping skills when stress becomes a problem or depression reoccurs.
  • How should you encourage your loved one to seek help for their depression?
    Empathy is always useful. Let them know you know this is difficult. It is often a good thing to point out that they are not alone in this, and that other people also struggle with the same issues.
  • Can depression affect physical health?
    Mental health and physical health are closely inter-related. Depression is linked with changes in the brain. Additionally, depression can increase risk for medical conditions such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, Type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease.
  • What are other psychiatric conditions that can co-exist with depression?
    Anxiety disorders and substance use disorders are some of the psychiatric conditions commonly found co-existing with major depressive disorder.
  • What is bipolar disorder?
    It is a type of mood disorder where there may be alternate episodes of mania (extreme elevated mood) and extreme depression (extreme sadness). These mood symptoms should be present persistently for most of the time of the day at least for 7 days for mania and 2 weeks for depressive episode to the extent that it hampers the functioning of a person in various sphere of life.
  • What are different types of bipolar disorder?
    Bipolar 1- a person have 1st episode as manic episode lasting for 7 days. They may experience depressive episode lasting for 2 weeks or more subsequently. Manic episode could be severe enough to require hospitalization. Bipolar 2-it includes depressive episodes followed by manic or hypomanic episodes Cyclothymic disorder- it involves repeated and multiple mood shifts between depressive and hypomanic episode that persists for at least 2 years. The periods of normalcy in between may be present but usually lasts less than 8 weeks. Mixed features- it means that a person have symptoms of mania and depression during the same episode. Rapid cycling- it means that you have at least 1 or more episodes of mania, hypomania or depressive episodes in 12-month span.
  • Does bipolar disorder have seasonal pattern?
    About 1/4th of patients with BAD have depressive episode in winter and fall and manic or hypomanic episodes in spring or summers.
  • Does having one episode means you will have more episodes?
    Researchers says that <10% of the people having only 1 episode in their lifetime. The number may vary from 2-3 episodes in a lifetime to have same numbers in any year.
  • How prevalent is bipolar disorder?
    The prevalence ranges anywhere from 0.5/1000 to 21/1000. Amongst Indians, it manifests between 20-30 years of age. Women have more depressive episodes and men have more manic episodes over lifetime. Indian study revealed that means age of onset is 26 years. Abot 11-13% of the illness was spent in acute episodes- mostly in depression (60%). Ist episode is more likely to be manic episode and average duration is 3 months for the episode to subside.
  • What are the causes of bipolar disorder?
    · Most common cause is genetics, i.e., It runs in families. Twin studies showed that lifetime chance in identical twins to develop BAD is 40- 70%. · Substance abuse: commonly associated with alcohol or cannabis abuse which can induce mood disorder. · Some medications can also induce hypomania/mania in patients, steroids, antidepressants. · Environmental stressor also plays a role in triggering bipolar disorder who are genetically predisposed.
  • What can trigger a manic/depressive episode?
    · Stressful life events like loss of job, loss of loved ones, ending of relationship, financial loss. · Disruption in regular sleep patterns. · Change in routine in sleeping, eating, exercise or social activities. · too much stimulation like loud noise, too much caffeine or nicotine intake. · Alcohol, cannabis, LSD, psychedelic mushrooms intake.
  • What happens if someone that has BAD doesn’t take treatment?
    If BAD is not treated properly, the episodes become increasingly longer and intense and asymptomatic periods become shorter and disappear completely. Untreated depressive episode may also lead to suicidal attempt.
  • How are mood swings different from bipolar disorder?
    Mood swings are short lived and don’t interfere with daily functioning. BAD usually has a cyclical nature but mood swings may have no pattern. There may be hypomanic/depressive episodes separated by relatively stable periods. .. Read More
  • What treatments are available for BAD?
    · It includes pharmacotherapy- that help in reducing the severity of symptoms. These mainly include mood stabilizers, antipsychotic and antianxiety medications. · Psychotherapy is also helpful as an adjunct especially in depressed bipolar disorder, some of them incudes CBT, Social Rhythm Therapy (focusing on behavior activation) and psychoeducation related to prognosis and outcome of the illness to the caregivers from time to time.
  • Tips for pts diagnosed with BAD.
    · Keep a consistent daily routine e.g., sleeping at same time every day. · Minimize stress by simplifying the life. · Keep a daily mood journal. · Avoid drug abuse. · Take medications on time as prescribed. Do not skip the doses. · Maintain a health support system.
  • What is addiction?
    Addiction is a complex condition characterized by compulsive substance use or behavior despite harmful consequences. It often involves physical and psychological dependence on a substance or activity.
  • What are common signs and symptoms of addiction?
    Signs may include cravings, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, neglecting responsibilities, and engaging in risky behaviors to obtain the substance or engage in the activity.
  • What are the most commonly abused substances?
    Commonly abused substances include: • alcohol, • tobacco, • prescription medications (e.g., opioids, benzodiazepines), • illegal drugs (e.g., cocaine, heroin)
  • What causes addiction?
    Addiction is influenced by a combination of: • Genetic, • Environmental, • Psychological factors.
  • How is addiction diagnosed?
    Addiction is diagnosed through a comprehensive assessment by a healthcare professional, often involving interviews, questionnaires, and screening tools to evaluate substance use patterns and associated problems.
  • What are the risks of untreated addiction?
    Untreated addiction can lead to severe health problems, strained relationships, financial difficulties, legal issues, and even overdose or death in some cases.
  • How is addiction treated?
    Addiction can be treated through a combination of therapies, counseling, medications, support groups, and lifestyle changes. Treatment plans are tailored to individual needs.
  • Can medication help in the treatment of addiction?
    Yes, medication can be a valuable tool in addiction treatment. Medications like methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone are commonly used to help manage cravings and withdrawal symptoms in opioid addiction. Medication are also be prescribed for alcohol use disorder and nicotine addiction.
  • What is the role of therapy in addiction treatment?
    Therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and motivational interviewing, is crucial in addressing the psychological aspects of addiction, identifying triggers, and developing coping skills.
  • How long do individuals typically take medication for addiction treatment?
    The duration of medication treatment varies from person to person. It can range from several months to several years, depending on individual needs and progress in recovery. Some individuals may need ongoing maintenance therapy.
  • Are medications for addiction safe to use?
    Many medications used in addiction treatment are considered safe when prescribed and monitored by a qualified healthcare provider. However, they may have side effects or interact with other medications. It's crucial to work closely with a healthcare professional to ensure safe and effective use.
  • Is medication alone enough for addiction treatment, or should it be combined with therapy?
    Medication is often most effective when used in conjunction with therapy and counseling. Behavioral therapy helps individuals address the underlying causes of addiction, develop coping skills, and make lasting behavioral changes.
  • What are the some other types of addictions?
    Behavioral Addictions: 1. Gambling Addiction: Also known as gambling disorder, this involves an uncontrollable urge to gamble, often resulting in significant financial and personal consequences. 2. Internet and Technology Addiction: Some people become addicted to activities like excessive internet use, gaming, or social media, leading to negative impacts on daily life. 3. Sexual Addiction: Individuals with sexual addiction engage in compulsive sexual behaviors that can disrupt their relationships and daily functioning. 4. Food Addiction: This addiction involves overeating or engaging in compulsive eating behaviors, leading to obesity and other health issues. 5. Shopping Addiction: Also known as compulsive buying disorder, it involves excessive, impulsive shopping that can lead to financial problems.
  • What is the permissible amount of alcohol an individual can consume?
    According to WHO (September, 2021) The WHO recommends that adults should consume no more than 20 grams (approximately 25 milliliters) of pure alcohol per day to reduce the risk of alcohol-related harm.
  • What is Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?
    Autism Spectrum Disorder is a developmental disorder that affects a person's ability to communicate, interact socially, and engage in repetitive behaviors or interests. It's characterized by a wide range of symptoms and varying levels of impairment.
  • What causes Autism Spectrum Disorder?
    The exact cause of ASD is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Research is ongoing to better understand these causes.
  • What are the early signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder?
    Early signs of ASD can include difficulties with social interaction, communication delays, repetitive behaviors, and sensitivity to sensory stimuli. However, symptoms can vary widely from person to person.
  • How is Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnosed?
    ASD is typically diagnosed through a comprehensive evaluation by a healthcare professional or developmental specialist, who assesses a child's behavior, communication, and development.
  • Is there a cure for Autism Spectrum Disorder?
    There is no cure for ASD, but early intervention and therapy can help individuals with ASD develop important skills and improve their quality of life.
  • What are the treatment options for Autism Spectrum Disorder?
    Treatment options often include ⁃ behavioral therapy, ⁃ speech therapy, ⁃ occupational therapy, ⁃ and medication for managing associated symptoms like anxiety or hyperactivity. ⁃ The specific treatment plan varies based on individual needs.
  • How can I support a family member or friend with Autism Spectrum Disorder?
    Offer patience, understanding, and acceptance. Educate yourself about ASD to better understand their experiences and needs. Encourage and support their therapies and interventions.
  • Can individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder lead fulfilling lives?
    Yes, with the right support, many individuals with ASD can lead fulfilling and meaningful lives. They can excel in various fields, build relationships, and contribute to society.
  • Are there specific challenges faced by adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder?
    Yes, adults with ASD may face challenges related to employment, independent living, and social relationships. It's essential to provide appropriate support and accommodations.
  • Can Autism Spectrum Disorder co-occur with other conditions?
    Yes, individuals with ASD may have other conditions such as ADHD, anxiety, depression, or sensory processing issues. It's important to address these co-occurring conditions as part of their overall care.
  • What is ADHD?
    It is a common neurodevelopmental disorder commonly seen in childhood age group, onset before 12 years of age. The ones who are affected shows difficulty in paying attention, are distractible and fidgety. The symptoms should be present at least in 2 areas of child’s life i.e., in school, at home, in social settings, or in the playground. The symptoms should be persistently present for at least 6 months.
  • How common is ADHD?
    According to National Institute of Mental Health, prevalence is 3-5% of the pre-school and school age group which means in a class of 25-30 children, there is one student who have these symptoms. Amongst these, 30-65% will continue to have symptoms in their adolescence and adulthood.
  • What are the causes of ADHD?
    The exact cause is not known, but some risk factors have been identified, they are: genetics: it runs in families, low birth weight babies, pre-term labor, any h/o of birth asphyxia, prenatal exposure to toxins (alcohol, nicotine).
  • What are common symptoms and signs of ADHD?
    Difficulties with attention: Easily get distracted. Losing things. Makes careless mistakes. Trouble finishing school/homework. Trouble paying attention. Hyperactivity: Fidgeting. Inability to stay still at one place. Always on the go. Running or climbing. Impulsivity: Interrupts or intrudes on others. Blurts out the answers before time. Impatient.
  • What are different types of treatment modalities for ADHD?
    Medications: these are of two types stimulants and non-stimulants. Medications are helpful in treating symptomatically. Therapy approach includes: play therapy, neuro-cognitive training program, parent training, social training, school/classroom-based training.
  • Can we stop the medications, if so when we can do that?
    When a child is asymptomatic for >1 year When a child behaves well and shows no symptoms and there is no change in the dosage. when a child has appropriate behavior despite missing a dose or 2. Child has developed the ability to concentrate on his own.
  • Tips and tricks for parents:
    · Create a routine for a child, for e.g., follow the schedule same time every day (bedtime, mealtime, sleeping time). · Help them to become organized: encourage them to clean their room, study table, keeping clothes, toys, books at the same place every day. · Manage the distractions: majorly these days is the screentime, avoid using it. When child is doing their homework, limit the noise around to avoid being distractible. · Limit the choice: offer them few options so that they don’t feel overwhelmed. · Help the child to plan: for e.g., break complex tasks into simpler ones and starting early for the longer tasks. · Discipline them effectively: instead of yelling, spanking or scolding, use time outs or removal of the privileges as consequences of inappropriate behavior. Positive reinforcement for e.g., allowing fixed screentime for competing the work on time can also be helpful. · Provide a healthy lifestyle: nutritious food, good physical activity and sufficient sleep is very important. · Create positive opportunities by encouraging children to participate extra-curricular activities like sports, art, music and play which can help in creating positive experiences.
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